Liquid Exception: uninitialized constant Jekyll::Utils::Rouge


The title is the error I get when I try ‘jekyll build’

I haven’t done anything on my blog since last November, so after I got the error on my first build I tried ‘bundle update’ and repeated the build command. Nothing changed.


Can you run jekyll build --trace and paste the output here?

Do you have rouge installed?


I installed rouge.
No change in result.
Here the trace output:
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.7.4/lib/jekyll/drops/document_drop.rb:8: warning: already initialized constant Jekyll::Drops::DocumentDrop::NESTED_OBJECT_FIELD_BLACKLIST
/usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/drops/document_drop.rb:8: warning: previous definition of NESTED_OBJECT_FIELD_BLACKLIST was here
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.7.4/lib/jekyll/drops/drop.rb:8: warning: already initialized constant Jekyll::Drops::Drop::NON_CONTENT_METHODS
/usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/drops/drop.rb:8: warning: previous definition of NON_CONTENT_METHODS was here
Configuration file: /home/bob/Documents/Webpages/Jekyll/blog/_config.yml
Source: /home/bob/Documents/Webpages/Jekyll/blog
Destination: /home/bob/Documents/Webpages/Jekyll/blog/_site
Incremental build: disabled. Enable with --incremental
Liquid Exception: uninitialized constant Jekyll::Utils::Rouge Did you mean? Rouge in /home/bob/Documents/Webpages/Jekyll/blog/_posts/2018-05-07-welcome-to-jekyll.markdown
Traceback (most recent call last):
32: from /usr/local/bin/jekyll:23:in <main>' 31: from /usr/local/bin/jekyll:23:inload’
30: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.7.4/exe/jekyll:15:in <top (required)>' 29: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/mercenary.rb:19:inprogram’
28: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/mercenary/program.rb:42:in go' 27: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/mercenary/command.rb:220:inexecute’
26: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/mercenary/command.rb:220:in each' 25: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/mercenary/command.rb:220:inblock in execute’
24: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.7.4/lib/jekyll/commands/build.rb:18:in block (2 levels) in init_with_program' 23: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.7.4/lib/jekyll/commands/build.rb:36:inprocess’
22: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.7.4/lib/jekyll/commands/build.rb:65:in build' 21: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/command.rb:26:inprocess_site’
20: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/site.rb:59:in process' 19: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/site.rb:168:inrender’
18: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/site.rb:168:in each' 17: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/site.rb:169:inblock in render’
16: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/site.rb:169:in each' 15: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/site.rb:171:inblock (2 levels) in render’
14: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/renderer.rb:61:in run' 13: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/renderer.rb:106:inrender_liquid’
12: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/liquid_renderer/file.rb:26:in render!' 11: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/liquid_renderer/file.rb:43:inmeasure_time’
10: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/liquid_renderer/file.rb:27:in block in render!' 9: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/liquid_renderer/file.rb:36:inmeasure_bytes’
8: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/liquid_renderer/file.rb:28:in block (2 levels) in render!' 7: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/liquid-4.0.1/lib/liquid/template.rb:220:inrender!’
6: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/liquid-4.0.1/lib/liquid/template.rb:207:in render' 5: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/liquid-4.0.1/lib/liquid/template.rb:242:inwith_profiling’
4: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/liquid-4.0.1/lib/liquid/template.rb:208:in block in render' 3: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/liquid-4.0.1/lib/liquid/block_body.rb:82:inrender’
2: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/liquid-4.0.1/lib/liquid/block_body.rb:102:in render_node_to_output' 1: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.7.4/lib/jekyll/tags/highlight.rb:43:inrender’
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.7.4/lib/jekyll/tags/highlight.rb:114:in `render_rouge’: uninitialized constant Jekyll::Utils::Rouge (NameError)
Did you mean? Rouge


@bob.parker Does running bundle exec jekyll build help? If not, please post the link to your repository.


bundle exec jekyll build
gives the same error:
Liquid Exception: uninitialized constant Jekyll::Utils::Rouge Did you mean? Rouge in /home/bob/Documents/Webpages/Jekyll/blog/_posts/2018-05-07-welcome-to-jekyll.markdown
jekyll 3.1.6 | Error: uninitialized constant Jekyll::Utils::Rouge

Here is the link to my blog:
Of course this was generated when my system was working.


I cloned your blog’s repo at and tried building as is
There was no error.

$ git clone bobs_blog
$ cd bobs_blog
$ bundle install
$ bundle exec jekyll build


Thank you for your effort on this.
I recall now that I had a forced restore of my home directory between my last successful blog and now. So it looks like there has been some ‘bit rot’ of what was restored.

I don’t have a lot of practical knowledge of Ruby or of the other software involved so I don’t really know what next steps I should take to remedy the situation.


The issue could be from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/
Move into the location /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/ and delete the jekyll directory there.


I deleted `/usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll/
and reinstalled from the xubuntu repo

Then did gem update which took some time.
then: gem install bundler


  1. jekyll build
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    10: from /usr/local/bin/jekyll:23:in <main>' 9: from /usr/local/bin/jekyll:23:inload’
    8: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.8.5/exe/jekyll:8:in <top (required)>' 7: from /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:inrequire’
    6: from /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in require' 5: from /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-3.8.5/lib/jekyll.rb:200:in<top (required)>’
    4: from /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in require' 3: from /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:inrequire’
    2: from /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/jekyll-sass-converter.rb:4:in <top (required)>' 1: from /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:inrequire’
    /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require’: cannot load such file – jekyll/converters/scss (LoadError)

  2. bundle exec jekyll build
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    2: from /home/bob/.rbenv/versions/2.5.1/bin/bundle:23:in <main>' 1: from /home/bob/.rbenv/versions/2.5.1/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems.rb:308:inactivate_bin_path’
    /home/bob/.rbenv/versions/2.5.1/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems.rb:289:in find_spec_for_exe': can't find gem bundler (>= 0.a) with executable bundle (Gem::GemNotFoundException) Traceback (most recent call last): 2: from /home/bob/.rbenv/versions/2.5.1/bin/bundle:23:in
    1: from /home/bob/.rbenv/versions/2.5.1/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems.rb:308:in activate_bin_path' /home/bob/.rbenv/versions/2.5.1/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems.rb:289:infind_spec_for_exe’: can’t find gem bundler (>= 0.a) with executable bundle (Gem::GemNotFoundException)


I don’t know why you had to reinstall but typically lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/ does not contain jekyll nor any of its dependencies and other jekyll plugins. It is not required for the proper functioning of Ruby.


maybe you have 2 versions of ruby installed?

this seems suspicious to me - but I am not very knowledgeable of ruby:


is it 2.5.0 or 2.5.1?


I’m in the same boat about Ruby.
The path you show is the same on my system.
I think I am at the point where I’ll do a full system search for everything Ruby and purge the lot and start over with the installation of it all.


I did purge and re-install everything.
I had to install a few gems in addition and finally it is working.
I do still have a problem using the --watch switch though I have installed the required gem.
I will close this and treat --watch as a separate issue.